Wednesday, April 18

B&B's niche market astronomically successful

(Originally published in TOURISM)

The planets and star systems of the tourism industry are realigning themselves in light of current pressures in the tourism universe, and it seems niche markets – once the neglected black holes of the industry – are increasingly assuming supernova status. Jack and Alice Newton’s Observatory B&B is perhaps the most vivid expression of a new phenomenon industry watchers say will only amplify with time.

Jack is a retired Marks & Spencer department store manager who has always nurtured a passion for astronomy. His observations are well documented among his network of peers. Alice and he had a dream of one day welcoming guests from around the world, with whom they could share their knowledge of the skies. “This is something we obviously love to do,” says Alice. “We find parents sometimes will look for holidays that will involve a science angle in which their children can participate, providing an opportunity for them to learn as a family.”

The Newtons looked for a place in Canada with a minimal amount of light pollution and cloudless skies. They built on Anarchist Mountain in Osoyoos, BC, and created what could well be the only B&B destination of its kind. Picture a grand two‑storey house on a hillside 1,500 feet above the valley floor, fully‑equipped with a 16‑inch computer‑controlled telescope housed in a roof‑top observatory. Even in daytime, Jack can view about 600 stars with his telescope.

“A stay with us always includes an opportunity to scan the skies. Our guests even have a chance to learn how to photograph their discoveries by registering for the optional imaging tutorial we offer, and they can take what they see through the telescope back home with them on a CD‑ROM; things like nebulae, galaxies and planets. We also offer morning observations of the sun through H‑alpha filters.”

Jack’s own collection of photography is an eloquent validation of this offering’s quality. Visitors to the B&B’s website ( can sample his vibrant images. On cloudy evenings, Jack logs into the controls of one of a number of observatories around the world that allow guest astronomers to make use of their facilities. “There is always a clear sky somewhere," he quips. A giant home theatre screen at the B&B, complete with the latest audio and viewing technology, then becomes the most luxurious of viewfinders.

This is the perfect example of the kind of tourism experience that differentiates itself from anything else on the market. Jack’s reputation in the field of astronomy precedes him and makes for an irresistible drawing card in some circles. He has pioneered the field of amateur CCD (charged couple device) photography, especially the development of high resolution tri‑color imaging. Jack’s photographs are well‑known to readers of Astronomy, Sky & Telescope, and Sky News magazines. He is also a frequent contributor to other magazines, calendars and newspapers around the globe; his work has been featured in such publications as Newsweek, the Canadian Geographic Magazine, Photo Life, and The Audubon Society's Field Guide to the Night Sky. As author or co‑author of a number of books on astronomy, his writings and images enjoy an international following.

Jack is a popular lecturer who has been invited to present his stunning images at star parties all over Canada and the US. In 1995 he traveled to southern England and Wales, where he spoke to more than 1,000 British Astronomical Society members during eleven lectures and workshops on his marathon 21‑day tour. His guiding experience includes leading solar eclipse expeditions throughout the world to such distant locales as Russia, Indonesia and Mexico. He headed a contingent of 300 enthusiasts to Peru to view Halley’s Comet.

Jack and Alice were honoured to have Asteroid 30840 named Jackalice by the IAU (International Astronomical Union). To date, Jack has received credit on 17 supernovae discoveries. No wonder people are willing to converge on the Observatory B&B, hoping perhaps to be with Jack and Alice when the next supernova comes around.

Making an event come alive - Québec style!

(Originally published in TOURISM)

No matter how ambitious the undertaking, or how daunting the task, Québec 2008’s senior executive director Josée Laurence hopes that if one lasting impression remains etched in the mind of those who converge on the city for its 400th birthday celebrations, it will be an image of countless – and highly memorable – gatherings:

“When the Société du 400e anniversaire de Québec launched on its mission, we looked at how comparable events elsewhere in North America had approached their commemorations. We even looked at world expos, and we sought guidance from regional stakeholders representing economic, social, tourism and cultural realms, through consultations with a view to uncovering what their collective aspirations were.

“People told us the celebrations had to impart, above all, a legacy for the geographic territory of Québec City. Secondly, it became clear that we needed to instil in the population a need to participate in the events beyond just simply attending them. This desire for community engagement emanated vividly from our findings.”

How this would be achieved, Laurence explains, is through a strategic layering of activities over the entire 2008 calendar year. “This runs against conventional wisdom which usually calls for concentrated energy over well‑defined events and staging areas. But the richness of the environment in which we operate here warranted a more inclusive approach.”

Laurence mentions the Québec winter carnival as an example of these riches. As a long‑established signature event, the carnival is well‑positioned to nourish the city’s birthday celebrations. Similarly, the Summit of La Francophonie, scheduled for October 2008, could hardly have been excluded from the festivities, so organizers had to opt for a wider than usual calendar window.

“This approach could only work if our program also featured particularly powerful moments designed to rekindle the public’s interest in the birthday celebrations," says Laurence. "These special 'moments' will be interspersed with an array of more niche‑oriented events inspired by our community of communities, for which we issued a call for proposals. The challenge was to treat equitably the proposals submitted, knowing they would originate from different groups with varying resources!”

To ease the process, project categories were established. One encompassed annual events like the Québec City Summer Festival and the New France Festival. “We counted 29 events and sent organizers documentation inviting them to submit proposals.” There was another category targeting cultural institutions like the Québec City Opera and the Symphony Orchestra. A third category was identified with a special mandate in mind, Laurence explains:

“After 400 years, we wished to acknowledge the dynamic nature of our society. Therefore it was felt areas like history and heritage, arts, culture, sports, leisure, the environment, science and technology should be mined because we believe a 400th anniversary is not only the opportunity to look back, but also an invitation to explore today’s reality with a view of tomorrow. We needed to call on our youth to consider some of the challenges ahead in the next centuries.”

To make it possible for these mostly volunteer stakeholders to submit projects in these fields, Laurence’s team issued two waves of calls for proposals: “We received 85 projects as a result of the first wave in 2005; and in the second wave in 2006, we received 232 projects. We established an advisory committee tasked with assessing the quality and relevance of projects; in the end, we retained 16 proposals from the first wave we felt would resonate with the spirit of gathering we wished to impart to the celebrations, and we are awaiting the results of the second wave."

The theme of the gathering (in French: “les rencontres”) will be the common thread throughout the year. “At a very fundamental level, this allows us to address the whole domain of the human experience through time. The celebrations must satisfy a longing to touch hearts, to create significant encounters between inhabitants and visitors. We live in times during which many have been to Last Vegas and have seen the greatest shows on earth. How do we differentiate our celebrations in a meaningful way with a program budget of 90 million dollars?”

Organizers have designated Espace 400e as the official plaza for the celebrations. "It ties in the water’s edge to a physical space within the city for gatherings, punctuated by exhibits and activities that support the experience. The gardens and the picnic areas; the bistros there will reinforce the theme. Even the outdoor furniture will be configured in a way that stimulates encounters and dialogue among people, instead of isolating them from one another.”

With this approach firmly in mind, Québec 2008 organizers have even asked event and conference management companies to submit theming proposals featuring the anniversary, that could be adopted by event organizers as market‑ready solutions for, say, a pharmaceutical industry conference, to integrate some of the commemorative flavour into their convention program.

Keeping the excitement alive!

Sustaining interest for the entire year will be a challenge, Laurence admits: "Espace 400e will be in operation from June to mid‑October. For this to work there must be a renewal of the theme, week after week, so that we instil in visitors from Québec the desire to come back. We are associated with Robert Lepage and his company Ex Machina, which we have mandated to produce a multi‑media show to be projected across the grain silos that line the basin for a period spanning 40 summer evenings starting at dusk. This unusual screen has a surface 600‑meters long – it will be the most ambitious such projection ever produced in the world!”

Needless to say, Josée Laurence is confident that key moments such as these, along with opening and closing events featuring the Cirque du Soleil, will all contribute to making sure Québec’s 400th is well‑received and fondly remembered as a place and time where so many individuals and groups have had so much to celebrate, and so many ways to do so.

USTOA looking for responsible best practices

(Originally published in TOURISM)

The United States Tour Operators Association (USTOA) has formed a Responsible Tourism Committee, with a mandate to help develop and promote best practices in promoting responsible tourism for the association's 134 active members. The committee will encourage members to engage in best practices and provide a forum for members to share experiences and develop solutions.

Other plans call for providing USTOA's membership with information about international accreditation and tourism certification programs in all parts of the world, and developing training programs to help members understand and meet the standards of responsible tourism in their day‑to‑day operations. As part of its outreach efforts, the USTOA Responsible Tourism Committee will also establish guidelines or standards with countries and allied members that already have existing programs.

This information on USTOA's new committee was recorded in TravelMole, February 13, 2007. TravelMole reporter David Wilkening commented: "The committee's first task may be its hardest: define responsible tourism."

Women are eager adventure travellers

Guests on a ranch adventure in Saskatchewan

(Originally published in TOURISM)

If you're wondering who is doing the most adventure travel these days, the answer may surprise you: women, and not the hairy-chested image of the macho man often associated with this fast-growing segment of the travel market, according to a report by David Wilkening in TravelMole. Women make up the majority of adventure travellers worldwide, reports the first annual 2006 Adventure Travel Industry Survey, Practices and Trends, released by the Adventure Travel Trade Association (ATTA).

Some highlights from interviews with travellers representing 35 countries: Women comprise 52% of adventure travellers; 41-60 year olds comprise the highest participating age group; 46% of all companies offer sustainability program/s for customers; The average land cost for an adventure travel trip: $2,122; and 83% of survey respondents realized revenue increases between 2004 and 2005

Glenbow Museum unveils multi-million dollar gallery to share Alberta's story with the world

(Originally published in TOURISM)

Mavericks: An Incorrigible History of Alberta opens March 24 and will share the story of Alberta through the lives of 48 mavericks- colorful characters whose tenacious spirits and enterprising mindsets shaped who we are today. These individuals represent Alberta men and women from diverse ethnic, cultural and social backgrounds - from prominent figures to ordinary people.

The Gallery, inspired by a book by Calgary-based author Aritha van Herk, brings these individual's stories to life through artifacts, art, photographs and multimedia. Visitors will trace the development of our history though 12 distinctive galleries:

Exploration and Fur

The fur traders were eager to exchange guns, blankets and kettles for the skins of beaver and buffalo with the First Peoples. Their quest for fur also opened the door to mapping and exploration.

Uninvited Guests

The West comes to be seen as wide open territory, ripe for exploitation. Meet the explorers, surveyors and missionaries who with their visions of new opportunities, made their discoveries in the West.

Mounties and Mustangs

The North-West Mounted Police were sent out from the east to monitor the unruly whiskey traders and shape a new dialogue with the Native Peoples. Discover the hardships of their trek west, what they faced upon their arrival and how they came to embody the ideal of law, order and good government.

Building the Railway

Prime Minister John A. Macdonald's vision of a united Canada required a transcontinental rail link. Marking a pivotal moment in the province's economic and cultural growth, the railway brings settlers, labourers and tourists and becomes both a mode of transportation and a political instrument.

Settlement and Scenery

Carrying both wealthy tourists who enjoyed luxury berths and silver service as well as penniless immigrants and frugal settlers eager to fulfill the West's promise of prosperity, the railway changed the settlement of the province.


The disappearance of the buffalo suggests the prairie may be used as available pasture for cattle. Explore life on Alberta's range: the end of open range ranching, our harsh environment, the origins of the Calgary Stampede and the horse as a symbol of Alberta's spirit.

Grassroots Politics

Albertans have always and continue to fight for social and political reform. The United Farmers of Alberta, the Social Credit Party, the Reform Party and the Canadian Alliance Party were all born here. One thing is certain; politics in Alberta are always unpredictable.

Fighting Injustice

Fighting for Alberta's provincial independence, fighting for the right to control public lands and resources, fighting for the rights of women, Albertans are known to test the limits and demand changes.


Settlers from across Canada, the United States, Europe and Asia came to Alberta seeking free land, religious and political freedom, and most of all, a fresh start. Meet the diverse peoples who brought new languages, cultures and skills to shape Alberta as she, in turn, shapes them.

War and the Homefront

The wars bring about different arrivals and departures interrupting Alberta's relative isolation. To this place so separate from the world's conflicts came POWs, internees and training sites. See how the province's character is shaped by bringing Alberta to the world and the world to Alberta.

Oil and Gas

Alberta's natural resources have built prosperity and success but oil is an enigmatic resource that both blesses and curses those who depend on it. Our rich energy has greatly affected the province's economy, politics, social structure and its future.

Post Haste

Alberta is now a complex, highly urban, yet still physically stunning province, and our maverick story continues in the present. We are a diverse and wildly unpredictable place with a population who lives, breathes and relishes change.

Find out more:


Karin Põldaas
Glenbow Museum

Annual new event announced for Regina

Here is a dispatch from Tourism Regina that was originally published in TOURISM:

"Tourism Regina and the Saskatchewan International Tattoo Inc are pleased to announce a new significant annual event to Regina, the Saskatchewan International Tattoo and Festival, presented by Saskatchewan Credit Unions.

Tattoo Show Producer, Al Nicholson said, "This is a military pageant on a grand scale featuring more than 550 military, RCMP and civilian performers united in a community salute to the RCMP and a tribute to Canada's soldiers."

Representing the presenting sponsor, Saskatchewan credit unions, Keith Nixon, Vice President of Democratic Support and Corporate Secretary for SaskCentral said, "Credit unions are interested in building strong, safe and stable communities, and we welcome opportunities to recognize the efforts of the RCMP, military, police and emergency service providers in this regard."

The Tattoo will take place on May 24, 25 and 26 in the Brandt Centre at Ipsco Place, with three evening performances and one Saturday Matinee. The show will feature the The RCMP Musical Ride, Lord Strathcona's Horse, The Tattoo Chorus, and The Massed Pipes and Drums along with a number of other musicians, dancers and singers who will be announced as the show is finalized.

Assistant Commissioner Pierre Menard, Commanding Officer of RCMP "Depot" Division, on behalf of all RCMP members said, "The men and women of the RCMP are honoured to receive this salute from the community along side with the Canadian Forces. Both the military and the RCMP are proud to serve Canada at home and abroad."

As Commanding Officer of the Royal Regina Rifles, Lieutenant Colonel Murray Allan said, "I am pleased to accept the tribute offered to Canada's soldiers. Members of the Regina Rifles look forward to participating in this event, which is particularly timely given that June 2007 marks the centennial anniversary of the unit."

This event is supported by corporate sponsorship received from Saskatchewan credit unions, City of Regina, SGI, Casino Regina, Regina Hotel Association, Crown Investments Corporation, H J Linnen and Associates, Ipsco Place, Great West Life, SaskEnergy, and SaskTel. Media sponsors include CTV, CKRM and The Leader Post."


Gayle Zimmerman
Tourism Regina

Forage and beef website zeroes in on climate change

Source: Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food

A website originally created as a “living library” of research and extension information for beef and forage producers has taken a turn for the greener.

The website,, now contains a great deal of material on climate change among the regular features and helpful tidbits it has always offered cattle producers.

Many see the addition of a “green” component as a natural fit for the website. There are clear links between agriculture and the environment, which are particularly strong in the forage and beef sectors.

Information has been developed into two new modules found on the site, entitled “Climate Change–Beef” and “Climate Change–Forage.” Both modules provide readers with a summary of data in the form of “Knowledge Nuggets,” as well as fact sheets and scientific papers outlining research done on the forage and beef industry as it relates to greenhouse gas emissions.

Attention to environmental issues is growing, and offers some interesting facts and useful advice to farmers in this area. For example, feeding better quality diets that include legumes rather than grasses will not only reduce the amount of feed required per animal, but also reduce the methane those animals produce and release in the digestion process. The result is a more efficient feeding regime that lowers the producer’s maintenance costs per animal, but is also friendlier to the environment.

“New topics are placed on the website all the time,” said Al Foster, a Forage Development Specialist with Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food (SAF). “It’s one that producers should have bookmarked. They’ll find it to be a good summary of information on a number of forage and beef related topics.”

The website has been developed by several supporting partners, including the Alberta Beef Producers, the Canada Alberta Beef Research Centre, the Saskatchewan Agriculture Development Fund, AgricultureAlberta, SAF, Manitoba Agriculture, and the Matching Investment Initiatives Fund of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC).

The construction of took several years and involved over 50 AAFC research scientists, university researchers, and provincial forage and beef cattle extension specialists from across Canada. The group came together with the goal of bringing agricultural research closer to Canadian farmers. Their efforts have not gone unrewarded, netting them a major national AAFC award.

Foster says the wealth of knowledge, dedication, and hard work put into this project has paid off.

“The website provides producers with one stop for forage and beef information. It also includes updated news topics and announcements of things happening in the agricultural sector in and around Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba,” he noted.

“It’s important for Saskatchewan producers to view these updates regularly.”

Foster says producers will find the website has many valuable features. “A user-friendly internal search engine allows for quick and easy access to the wide variety of information on the site. As well, information is summarized in a logical outline and is easy to follow,” he explained.

“New topics and recent research papers from the majority of Canadian forage and beef cattle research scientists are being added all the time, so is always a quick reference for subjects that producers are interested in.”

For more information, contact:
Al Foster, Forage Development Specialist
Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food
Phone: (306) 878-8890

Non-bloating legumes reduce risk in alfalfa/grass pastures

Source: Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food

When seeding cultivated land to perennial forage for pasture, producers are sometimes reluctant to include alfalfa in the seed mix because of the risk of bloat.

However, according to Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food Forage Development Specialist Lorne Klein, there are some non-bloating legumes such as sainfoin and cicer milkvetch that can help producers deal with that risk.

“The advantage of including alfalfa with grass is the opportunity to reduce the need for nitrogen fertilizer on your pasture,” said Klein. “Studies have shown that alfalfa/grass combinations without nitrogen fertilizer will produce forage yields equal to pure grass stands receiving 35 to 150 pounds per acre of nitrogen fertilizer.”

The good news is that producers can get the lion’s share of the legume advantage even if they just have 40 per cent alfalfa in their pasture stand. They don’t need to graze the full 100 per cent alfalfa.

One strategy to reduce the risk of bloat is to include non-bloating legumes in the seed mix, along with alfalfa and grass.

Sainfoin is a relatively early growing legume, and is suggested for pastures where early season grazing is planned. A suggested seeding rate for a pasture mix is 10 pounds per acre sainfoin, one pound per acre alfalfa, and four to seven pounds per acre grass.

“The nitrogen fixing capability of sainfoin is not well known, so alfalfa in the mix is still recommended for that purpose,” said Klein. “The sainfoin will reduce bloat risk, as long as it is consumed with the alfalfa.”

Cicer milkvetch is a legume that is slow to start growth in spring, and retains its leaves into late summer and fall. It is therefore better suited for summer and fall grazing.

A suggested seeding rate for a pasture mix is three pounds per acre cicer milkvetch, one pound per acre alfalfa, and four to seven pounds per acre grass.

“Cicer milkvetch may take three to four years to become established, so the alfalfa is recommended to provide a legume during the first two to three years,” Klein noted.

In the spring of 2005, 10 producers throughout Saskatchewan seeded demonstration fields that included sainfoin and cicer milkvetch. These fields were monitored for establishment, and will be followed as the producers use them for grazing. Observations will be used for future recommendations.

For a list of where the demonstration fields are located, please contact Lorne Klein at (306) 848-2382.

For more information, contact:
Lorne Klein, Forage Development Specialist
Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food
Phone: (306) 848-2382

Value-added processing provides key for rural renewal

Source: Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food

The latest census data from Statistics Canada has provided more fuel for the debate about rural revitalization.

While the numbers showed that the overall trend towards urbanization continues, an expert in rural population with the agency says it has little to do with the amount of money flowing through the rural economy.

Statistics Canada Research Economist Ray Bollman’s recent report, entitled “Factors Driving Canada’s Rural Economy,” found that the three fundamental drivers for rural Canada are technology, prices, and demography. His conclusions provide some food for thought for those who believe that rural revitalization is linked to the price of agricultural commodities.

Bollman says commodity industries like agriculture are not likely to be big drivers of rural population increases if the benchmark for success is job growth or population growth.

“The price of machinery is going down relative to the price of labour to do a unit of work, whether that is to make a bale of hay, produce a litre of milk, or cultivate an acre of land. So there is always an incentive there to substitute machines for workers,” he said.

“Communities that are intensive in commodities should work towards finding something extra or something new to export, to stabilize their work force, because you need fewer and fewer people to simply produce commodities,” said Bollman.

That thought runs counter to those who suggest a more profitable farm economy would result in more rural population. Bollman says more money flowing through a rural economy is not the solution.

“If commodity prices go up, you do not get more workers in communities. If the objective is workers or people, then the change in commodity prices will not have a big impact. I think you might even predict that people would buy bigger machines and you would need even fewer workers,” he explained.

Bollman says adding a manufacturing base or value-added processing is one approach that might more effectively create jobs.

“If you think about a successful rural community 20 years from now, it will likely have a manufacturing base. Successful communities will be those that find a new product or service to export in order to maintain their employment base,” he said.

Bollman’s report concludes that the falling price of transporting goods will make rural Canada more competitive when it comes to attracting manufacturing and processing. When transportation costs drop, opportunities arise to create jobs in these areas, and jobs create population growth.

That may sound like an overly simple solution, and Bollman admits that may not be the answer for all communities. But he contends that communities that choose to grow will find their way.

“I don’t think rural depopulation is inevitable, because no matter how you classify groups of communities or sizes of communities or the major commodity being shipped in the community, there are always some that are growing and some that are declining,” he stated.

“It’s not inevitable. There is always some community that, through good luck or good management, is able to grow.”

Bollman’s report, “Factors Driving Canada’s Rural Economy,” is available through Statistics Canada’s website at

For more information, contact:
Ray Bollman, Research Economist
Statistics Canada
Phone: (613) 951-3747

Western Canadian Livestock Expo returns to Saskatoon

Source: Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food

A prime opportunity is right around the corner for dairy and pork producers to see the latest equipment and products available to help them advance their operations.

The 2007 Western Canadian Livestock Expo will continue to showcase the most recent developments in technology and genetics for both the dairy and pork industries.

The show is being held April 25 and 26 at the Prairieland Park in Saskatoon. It’s organized by the Prairieland Park Corporation, and co-sponsored by Sask Pork and Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food (SAF).

Troy Donauer, a Livestock Development Specialist with SAF, says this year’s Expo provides trade show exhibitors, producers, and patrons with expanded marketing and networking opportunities.

“We’ve done a number of things to try and make the show better. We’re offering a free ‘Farmyard Lunch’ from 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. on April 25 for all the exhibitors and the people attending to mix and mingle. It’s a good networking opportunity for all involved,” he said.

“The show is also a great opportunity for producers to meet and talk with one another, to see what’s working in each other’s operations, converse over a coffee, learn what’s going on in the industry, and hear the latest scuttlebutt.”

Donauer says the trade show portion of the Expo is the place where those in the dairy and pork industry get to see the latest technology and equipment to make their operations more efficient, such as the latest electronic feeding systems.

For exhibitors such as feed companies or equipment manufacturers, it gives them a chance to spread their products around, touch different markets, and gain the exposure they need to be successful. “They get to be seen by a pretty big audience with one appearance,” he stated.

Another important part of the Expo is the educational component. School tours are being organized for grade five students to learn about various aspects of “Milk and Pork Production.” Tour guides host the students, and qualified resource people conduct 15-minute presentations at five stations discussing the processing of milk and milk products, the milking parlour, the dairy cow’s diet, nutritional aspects of dairy production, and pork production today.

“Last year, the Expo was scheduled over the Easter school break, and the school tours were really missed by everyone,” Donauer said. “The tours are going to resume again this year, which we’re all happy about.”

Education will be a key focus for producers and industry stakeholders, as well. Three training seminars – a low-stress pig handling workshop, a Trucker Quality Assurance certification course for hog haulers and transporters, and an animal care assessment tool information session – will be offered over the course of the two days, with leading industry experts on hand to conduct presentations.

While there is a $75 registration fee for the pig handling workshop, the other two seminars are offered at no cost to participants.

The public may also be interested in taking in the various livestock shows and sales occurring throughout the event, involving dairy cattle in several different categories.

Public admittance to the 2007 Western Canadian Livestock Expo is free of charge.

For more information on the events surrounding the Expo, including how to book school tours for grade five classes, visit the Prairieland Park website at, or call toll free 1-888-931-9333.

For more information, contact:
Troy Donauer, Livestock Development Specialist
Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food
Phone: (306) 933-5096